Learning Objectives

Learning objective 1.1 The student is able to convert a data set from a table of numbers that reflect

a change in the genetic makeup of a population over time and to apply mathematical methods and

conceptual understandings to investigate the cause(s) and effect(s) of this change. [See SP 1.5, 2.2;

Essential knowledge 1.A.1]

Learning objective 1.2 The student is able to evaluate evidence provided by data to qualitatively

and quantitatively investigate the role of natural selection in evolution. [See SP 2.2, 5.3; Essential

knowledge 1.A.1]

Learning objective 1.3 The student is able to apply mathematical methods to data from a real or

simulated population to predict what will happen to the population in the future. [See SP 2.2;

Essential knowledge 1.A.1]

Learning objective 1.4 The student is able to evaluate data-based evidence that describes evolutionary

changes in the genetic makeup of a population over time. [See SP 5.3; Essential knowledge 1.A.2]

Learning objective 1.5 The student is able to connect evolutionary changes in a population over time

to a change in the environment. [See SP 7.1; Essential knowledge 1.A.2]

Learning objective 1.6 The student is able to use data from mathematical models based on the Hardy-

Weinberg equilibrium to analyze genetic drift and effects of selection in the evolution of specific

populations. [See SP 1.4, 2.1; Essential knowledge 1.A.3]

Learning objective 1.7 The student is able to justify data from mathematical models based on the

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to analyze genetic drift and the effects of selection in the evolution of

specific populations. [See SP 2.1; Essential knowledge 1.A.3]

Learning objective 1.8 The student is able to make predictions about the effects of genetic drift,

migration and artificial selection on the genetic makeup of a population. [See SP 6.4; Essential

knowledge 1.A.3]

Learning objective 1.9 The student is able to evaluate evidence provided by data from many scientific

disciplines that support biological evolution. [See SP 5.3; Essential knowledge 1.A.4]

Learning objective 1.10 The student is able to refine evidence based on data from many scientific

disciplines that support biological evolution. [See SP 5.2; Essential knowledge 1.A.4]

Learning objective 1.11 The student is able to design a plan to answer scientific questions regarding

how organisms have changed over time using information from morphology, biochemistry and

geology. [See SP 4.2; Essential knowledge 1.A.4]

Learning objective 1.12 The student is able to connect scientific evidence from many scientific

disciplines to support the modern concept of evolution. [See SP 7.1; Essential knowledge 1.A.4]

Learning objective 1.13 The student is able to construct and/or justify mathematical models, diagrams

or simulations that represent processes of biological evolution. [See SP 1.1, 2.1; Essential knowledge

1.A.4]

Learning objective 1.14 The student is able to pose scientific questions that correctly identify essential

properties of shared, core life processes that provide insights into the history of life on Earth. [See SP

3.1; Essential knowledge 1.B.1]

Learning objective 1.15 The student is able to describe specific examples of conserved core biological

processes and features shared by all domains or within one domain of life, and how these shared,

conserved core processes and features support the concept of common ancestry for all organisms.

[See SP 7.2; Essential knowledge 1.B.1]

Learning objective 1.16 The student is able to justify the scientific claim that organisms share many

conserved core processes and features that evolved and are widely distributed among organisms

today. [See SP 6.1; Essential knowledge 1.B.1]

Learning objective 1.17 The student is able to pose scientific questions about a group oforganisms

whose relatedness is described by a phylogenetic tree or cladogram in order to (1) identify shared

characteristics, (2) make inferences about the evolutionary history of the group, and (3) identify

character data that could extend or improve the phylogenetic tree. [See SP 3.1; Essential knowledge

1.B.2]

 

Learning objective 1.18 The student is able to evaluate evidence provided by a data set in conjunction

with a phylogenetic tree or a simple cladogram to determine evolutionary history and speciation.

[See SP 5.3; Essential knowledge 1.B.2]

Learning objective 1.19 The student is able create a phylogenetic tree or simple cladogram that

correctly represents evolutionary history and speciation from a provided data set. [See SP 1.1;

Essential knowledge 1.B.2]

Learning objective 1.20 The student is able to analyze data related to questions of speciation and

extinction throughout the Earthís history. [See SP 5.1; Essential knowledge 1.C.1]

Learning objective 1.21 The student is able to design a plan for collecting data to investigate the

scientific claim that speciation and extinction have occurred throughout the Earthís history. [See SP

4.2; Essential knowledge 1.C.1]

Learning objective 1.22 The student is able to use data from a real or simulated population(s), based

on graphs or models of types of selection, to predict what will happen to the population in the future.

[See SP 6.4; Essential knowledge 1.C.2]

Learning objective 1.23 The student is able to justify the selection of data that address questions

related to reproductive isolation and speciation. [See SP 4.1; Essential knowledge 1.C.2]

Learning objective 1.24 The student is able to describe speciation in an isolated population and

connect it to change in gene frequency, change in environment, natural selection and/or genetic drift.

[See SP 7.2; Essential knowledge 1.C.2]

Learning objective 1.25 The student is able to describe a model that represents evolution within a

population. [See SP 1.2; Essential knowledge 1.C.3]

Learning objective 1.26 The student is able to evaluate given data sets that illustrate evolution as an

ongoing process. [See SP 5.3; Essential knowledge 1.C.3]

Learning objective 1.27 The student is able to describe a scientific hypothesis about the origin of life

on Earth. [See SP 1.2; Essential knowledge 1.D.1]

Learning objective 1.28 The student is able to evaluate scientific questions based on hypotheses about

the origin of life on Earth. [See SP 3.3; Essential knowledge 1.D.1]

Learning objective 1.29 The student is able to describe the reasons for revisions of scientific

hypotheses of the origin of life on Earth. [See SP 6.3; Essential knowledge 1.D.1]

Learning objective 1.30 The student is able to evaluate scientific hypotheses about the origin of life on

Earth. [See SP 6.5; Essential knowledge 1.D.1]

Learning objective 1.31 The student is able to evaluate the accuracy and legitimacy of data to answer

scientific questions about the origin of life on Earth. [See SP 4.4; Essential knowledge 1.D.1]

Learning objective 1.32 The student is able to justify the selection of geological, physical, and chemical

data that reveal early Earth conditions. [See SP 4.1; Essential knowledge 1.D.2]

 

Learning objective 2.1 The student is able to explain how biological systems use free energy based on

empirical data that all organisms require constant energy input to maintain organization, to grow and

to reproduce. [See SP 6.2; Essential knowledge 2.A.1]

Learning objective 2.2 The student is able to justify a scientific claim that free energy is required for

living systems to maintain organization, to grow or to reproduce, but that multiple strategies exist in

different living systems. [See SP 6.1; Essential knowledge 2.A.1]

Learning objective 2.3 The student is able to predict how changes in free energy availability affect

organisms, populations and ecosystems. [See SP 6.4; Essential knowledge 2.A.1]

Learning objective 2.4 The student is able to use representations to pose scientific questions about

what mechanisms and structural features allow organisms to capture, store and use free energy.

[See SP 1.4, 3.1; Essential knowledge 2.A.2]

Learning objective 2.5 The student is able to construct explanations of the mechanisms and structural

features of cells that allow organisms to capture, store or use free energy. [See SP 6.2; Essential

knowledge 2.A.2]

 

 

Learning objective 2.6 The student is able to use calculated surface area-to-volume ratios to predict

which cell(s) might eliminate wastes or procure nutrients faster by diffusion. [See SP 2.2; Essential

knowledge 2.A.3]

Learning objective 2.7 Students will be able to explain how cell size and shape affect the overall rate

of nutrient intake and the rate of waste elimination. [See SP 6.2; Essential knowledge 2.A.3]

Learning objective 2.8 The student is able to justify the selection of data regarding the types of

molecules that an animal, plant or bacterium will take up as necessary building blocks and excrete as

waste products. [See SP 4.1; Essential knowledge 2.A.3]

Learning objective 2.9 The student is able to represent graphically or model quantitatively the

exchange of molecules between an organism and its environment, and the subsequent use of these

molecules to build new molecules that facilitate dynamic homeostasis, growth and reproduction. [See

SP 1.1, 1.4; Essential knowledge 2.A.3]

Learning objective 2.10 The student is able to use representations and models to pose scientific

questions about the properties of cell membranes and selective permeability based on molecular

structure. [See SP 1.4, 3.1; Essential knowledge 2.B.1]

Learning objective 2.11 The student is able to construct models that connect the movement of

molecules across membranes with membrane structure and function. [See SP 1.1, 7.1, 7.2; Essential

knowledge 2.B.1]

Learning objective 2.12 The student is able to use representations and models to analyze situations

or solve problems qualitatively and quantitatively to investigate whether dynamic homeostasis

is maintained by the active movement of molecules across membranes. [See SP 1.4; Essential

knowledge 2.B.2]

Learning objective 2.13 The student is able to explain how internal membranes and organelles

contribute to cell functions. [See SP 6.2; Essential knowledge 2.B.3]

Learning objective 2.14 The student is able to use representations and models to describe differences

in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. [See SP 1.4; Essential knowledge 2.B.3]

Learning objective 2.15 The student can justify a claim made about the effect(s) on a biological system

at the molecular, physiological or organismal level when given a scenario in which one or more

components within a negative regulatory system is altered. [See SP 6.1; Essential knowledge 2.C.1]

Learning objective 2.16 The student is able to connect how organisms use negative feedback to

maintain their internal environments. [See SP 7.2; Essential knowledge 2.C.1]

Learning objective 2.17 The student is able to evaluate data that show the effect(s) of changes in

concentrations of key molecules on negative feedback mechanisms. [See SP 5.3; Essential knowledge

2.C.1]

Learning objective 2.18 The student can make predictions about how organisms use negative

feedback mechanisms to maintain their internal environments. [See SP 6.4; Essential knowledge

2.C.1]

Learning objective 2.19 The student is able to make predictions about how positive feedback

mechanisms amplify activities and processes in organisms based on scientific theories and models.

[See SP 6.4; Essential knowledge 2.C.1]

Learning objective 2.20 The student is able to justify that positive feedback mechanisms amplify

responses in organisms. [See SP 6.1; Essential knowledge 2.C.1]

Learning objective 2.21 The student is able to justify the selection of the kind of data needed to

answer scientific questions about the relevant mechanism that organisms use to respond to changes

in their external environment. [See SP 4.1; Essential knowledge 2.C.2]

Learning objective 2.22 The student is able to refine scientific models and questions about the effect

of complex biotic and abiotic interactions on all biological systems, from cells and organisms to

populations, communities and ecosystems. [See SP 1.3, 3.2; Essential knowledge 2.D.1]

Learning objective 2.23 The student is able to design a plan for collecting data to show that all

biological systems (cells, organisms, populations, communities and ecosystems) are affected by

complex biotic and abiotic interactions. [See SP 4.2, 7.2; Essential knowledge 2.D.1]

 

Learning objective 2.24 The student is able to analyze data to identify possible patterns and

relationships between a biotic or abiotic factor and a biological system (cells, organisms, populations,

communities or ecosystems). [See SP 5.1; Essential knowledge 2.D.1]

Learning objective 2.25 The student can construct explanations based on scientific evidence that

homeostatic mechanisms reflect continuity due to common ancestry and/or divergence due to

adaptation in different environments. [See SP 6.2; Essential knowledge 2.D.2]

Learning objective 2.26 The student is able to analyze data to identify phylogenetic patterns or

relationships, showing that homeostatic mechanisms reflect both continuity due to common ancestry

and change due to evolution in different environments. [See SP 5.1; Essential knowledge 2.D.2]

Learning objective 2.27 The student is able to connect differences in the environment with the

evolution of homeostatic mechanisms. [See SP 7.1; Essential knowledge 2.D.2]

Learning objective 2.28 The student is able to use representations or models to analyze quantitatively

and qualitatively the effects of disruptions to dynamic homeostasis in biological systems. [See SP 1.4;

Essential knowledge 2.D.3]

Learning objective 2.29 The student can create representations and models to describe immune

responses. [See SP 1.1, 1.2; Essential knowledge 2.D.4]

Learning objective 2.30 The student can create representations or models to describe nonspecific

immune defenses in plants and animals.[See SP 1.1, 1.2; Essential knowledge 2.D.4]

Learning objective 2.31 The student can connect concepts in and across domains to show that timing

and coordination of specific events are necessary for normal development in an organism and that

these events are regulated by multiple mechanisms. [See SP 7.2; Essential knowledge 2.E.1]

Learning objective 2.32 The student is able to use a graph or diagram to analyze situations or solve

problems (quantitatively or qualitatively) that involve timing and coordination of events necessary for

normal development in an organism. [See SP 1.4; Essential knowledge 2.E.1]

Learning objective 2.33 The student is able to justify scientific claims with scientific evidence to show

that timing and coordination of several events are necessary for normal development in an organism

and that these events are regulated by multiple mechanisms. [See SP 6.1; Essential knowledge 2.E.1]

Learning objective 2.34 The student is able to describe the role of programmed cell death in

development and differentiation, the reuse of molecules, and the maintenance of dynamic

homeostasis. [See SP 7.1; Essential knowledge 2.E.1]

Learning objective 2.35 The student is able to design a plan for collecting data to support the scientific

claim that the timing and coordination of physiological events involve regulation. [See SP 4.2;

Essential knowledge 2.E.2]

Learning objective 2.36 The student is able to justify scientific claims with evidence to show how

timing and coordination of physiological events involve regulation. [See SP 6.1; Essential knowledge

2.E.2]

Learning objective 2.37 The student is able to connect concepts that describe mechanisms that

regulate the timing and coordination of physiological events. [See SP 7.2; Essential knowledge 2.E.2]

Learning objective 2.38 The student is able to analyze data to support the claim that responses

to information and communication of information affect natural selection. [See SP 5.1; Essential

knowledge 2.E.3]

Learning objective 2.39 The student is able to justify scientific claims, using evidence, to describe how

timing and coordination of behavioral events in organisms are regulated by several mechanisms.

[See SP 6.1; Essential knowledge 2.E.3]

Learning objective 2.40 The student is able to connect concepts in and across domain(s) to predict

how environmental factors affect responses to information and change behavior. [See SP 7.2;

Essential knowledge 2.E.3]

 

 

 

 

 

Learning objective 3.1 The student is able to construct scientific explanations that use the structures

and mechanisms of DNA and RNA to support the claim that DNA and, in some cases, that RNA are

the primary sources of heritable information. [See SP 6.5; Essential knowledge 3.A.1]

Learning objective 3.2 The student is able to justify the selection of data from historical investigations

that support the claim that DNA is the source of heritable information. [See SP 4.1; Essential

knowledge 3.A.1]

Learning objective 3.3 The student is able to describe representations and models that illustrate how

genetic information is copied for transmission between generations. [See SP 1.2; Essential knowledge

3.A.1]

Learning objective 3.4 The student is able to describe representations and models illustrating how

genetic information is translated into polypeptides. [See SP 1.2; Essential knowledge 3.A.1]

Learning objective 3.5 The student can justify the claim that humans can manipulate heritable

information by identifying at least two commonly used technologies. [See SP 6.4; Essential

knowledge 3.A.1]

Learning objective 3.6 The student can predict how a change in a specific DNA or RNA sequence can

result in changes in gene expression. [See SP 6.4; Essential knowledge 3.A.1]

Learning objective 3.7 The student can make predictions about natural phenomena occurring during

the cell cycle. [See SP 6.4; Essential knowledge 3.A.2]

Learning objective 3.8 The student can describe the events that occur in the cell cycle. [See SP 1.2;

Essential knowledge 3.A.2]

Learning objective 3.9 The student is able to construct an explanation, using visual representations

or narratives, as to how DNA in chromosomes is transmitted to the next generation via mitosis, or

meiosis followed by fertilization. [See SP 6.2; Essential knowledge 3.A.2]

Learning objective 3.10 The student is able to represent the connection between meiosis and

increased genetic diversity necessary for evolution. [See SP 7.1; Essential knowledge 3.A.2]

Learning objective 3.11 The student is able to evaluate evidence provided by data sets to support the

claim that heritable information is passed from one generation to another generation through mitosis,

or meiosis followed by fertilization. [See SP 5.3; Essential knowledge 3.A.2]

Learning objective 3.12 The student is able to construct a representation that connects the process of

meiosis to the passage of traits from parent to offspring. [See SP 1.1, 7.2; Essential knowledge 3.A.3]

Learning objective 3.13 The student is able to pose questions about ethical, social or medical issues

surrounding human genetic disorders. [See SP 3.1; Essential knowledge 3.A.3]

Learning objective 3.14 The student is able to apply mathematical routines to determine Mendelian

patterns of inheritance provided by data sets. [See SP 2.2; Essential knowledge 3.A.3]

Learning objective 3.15 The student is able to explain deviations from Mendelís model of the

inheritance of traits. [See SP 6.5; Essential knowledge 3.A.4]

Learning objective 3.16 The student is able to explain how the inheritance patterns of many traits

cannot be accounted for by Mendelian genetics. [See SP 6.3; Essential knowledge 3.A.4]

Learning objective 3.17 The student is able to describe representations of an appropriate example of

inheritance patterns that cannot be explained by Mendelís model of the inheritance of traits. [See SP

1.2; Essential knowledge 3.A.4]

Learning objective 3.18 The student is able to describe the connection between the regulation of gene

expression and observed differences between different kinds of organisms. [See SP 7.1; Essential

knowledge 3.B.1]

Learning objective 3.19 The student is able to describe the connection between the regulation of

gene expression and observed differences between individuals in a population. [See SP 7.1; Essential

knowledge 3.B.1]

Learning objective 3.20 The student is able to explain how the regulation of gene expression is

essential for the processes and structures that support efficient cell function. [See SP 6.2; Essential

knowledge 3.B.1]

Learning objective 3.21 The student can use representations to describe how gene regulation

influences cell products and function. [See SP 1.4; Essential knowledge 3.B.1]

Learning objective 3.22 The student is able to explain how signal pathways mediate gene expression,

including how this process can affect protein production. [See SP 6.2; Essential knowledge 3.B.2]

Learning objective 3.23 The student can use representations to describe mechanisms of the regulation

of gene expression. [See SP 1.4; Essential knowledge 3.B.2]

Learning objective 3.24 The student is able to predict how a change in genotype, when expressed as

a phenotype, provides a variation that can be subject to natural selection. [See SP 6.4, 7.2; Essential

knowledge 3.C.1]

Learning objective 3.25 The student can create a visual representation to illustrate how changes in a

DNA nucleotide sequence can result in a change in the polypeptide produced. [See SP 1.1; Essential

knowledge 3.C.1]

Learning objective 3.26 The student is able to explain the connection between genetic variations in

organisms and phenotypic variations in populations. [See SP 7.2; Essential knowledge 3.C.1]

Learning objective 3.27 The student is able to compare and contrast processes by which genetic

variation is produced and maintained in organisms from multiple domains. [See SP 7.2; Essential

knowledge 3.C.2]

Learning objective 3.28 The student is able to construct an explanation of the multiple processes that

increase variation within a population. [See SP 6.2; Essential knowledge 3.C.2]

Learning objective 3.29 The student is able to construct an explanation of how viruses introduce

genetic variation in host organisms. [See SP 6.2; Essential knowledge 3.C.3]

Learning objective 3.30 The student is able to use representations and appropriate models to describe

how viral replication introduces genetic variation in the viral population. [See SP 1.4; Essential

knowledge 3.C.3]

Learning objective 3.31 The student is able to describe basic chemical processes for cell

communication shared across evolutionary lines of descent. [See SP 7.2; Essential knowledge 3.D.1]

Learning objective 3.32 The student is able to generate scientific questions involving cell

communication as it relates to the process of evolution. [See SP 3.1; Essential knowledge 3.D.1]

Learning objective 3.33 The student is able to use representation(s) and appropriate models to

describe features of a cell signaling pathway. [See SP 1.4; Essential knowledge 3.D.1]

Learning objective 3.34 The student is able to construct explanations of cell communication through

cell-to-cell direct contact or through chemical signaling. [See SP 6.2; Essential knowledge 3.D.2]

Learning objective 3.35 The student is able to create representation(s) that depict how cell-to-cell

communication occurs by direct contact or from a distance through chemical signaling. [See SP 1.1;

Essential knowledge 3.D.2]

Learning objective 3.36 The student is able to describe a model that expresses the key elements

of signal transduction pathways by which a signal is converted to a cellular response. [See SP 1.5;

Essential knowledge 3.D.3]

Learning objective 3.37 The student is able to justify claims based on scientific evidence that changes

in signal transduction pathways can alter cellular response. [See SP 6.1; Essential knowledge 3.D.4]

Learning objective 3.38 The student is able to describe a model that expresses key elements to show

how change in signal transduction can alter cellular response. [See SP 1.5; Essential knowledge 3.D.4]

Learning objective 3.39 The student is able to construct an explanation of how certain drugs affect

signal reception and, consequently, signal transduction pathways. [See SP 6.2; Essential knowledge

3.D.4]

Learning objective 3.40 The student is able to analyze data that indicate how organisms exchange

information in response to internal changes and external cues, and which can change behavior. [See

SP 5.1; Essential knowledge 3.E.1]

Learning objective 3.41 The student is able to create a representation that describes how organisms

exchange information in response to internal changes and external cues, and which can result in

changes in behavior. [See SP 1.1; Essential knowledge 3.E.1]

Learning objective 3.42 The student is able to describe how organisms exchange information in

response to internal changes or environmental cues. [See SP 7.1; Essential knowledge 3.E.1]

 

Learning objective 3.43 The student is able to construct an explanation, based on scientific theories

and models, about how nervous systems detect external and internal signals, transmit and integrate

information, and produce responses. [See SP 6.2, 7.1; Essential knowledge 3.E.2]

Learning objective 3.44 The student is able to describe how nervous systems detect external and

internal signals. [See SP 1.2; Essential knowledge 3.E.2]

Learning objective 3.45 The student is able to describe how nervous systems transmit information.

[See SP 1.2; Essential knowledge 3.E.2]

Learning objective 3.46 The student is able to describe how the vertebrate brain integrates information

to produce a response. [See SP 1.2; Essential knowledge 3.E.2]

Learning objective 3.47 The student is able to create a visual representation of complex nervous

systems to describe/explain how these systems detect external and internal signals, transmit and

integrate information, and produce responses. [See SP 1.1; Essential knowledge 3.E.2]

Learning objective 3.48 The student is able to create a visual representation to describe how nervous

systems detect external and internal signals. [See SP 1.1; Essential knowledge 3.E.2]

Learning objective 3.49 The student is able to create a visual representation to describe how nervous

systems transmit information. [See SP 1.1; Essential knowledge 3.E.2]

Learning objective 3.50 The student is able to create a visual representation to describe how the

vertebrate brain integrates information to produce a response. [See SP 1.1; Essential knowledge

3.E.2]

 

Learning objective 4.1 The student is able to explain the connection between the sequence and the

subcomponents of a biological polymer and its properties. [See SP 7.1; Essential knowledge 4.A.1]

Learning objective 4.2 The student is able to refine representations and models to explain how the

subcomponents of a biological polymer and their sequence determine the properties of that polymer.

[See SP 1.3; Essential knowledge 4.A.1]

Learning objective 4.3 The student is able to use models to predict and justify that changes in the

subcomponents of a biological polymer affect the functionality of the molecule. [See SP 6.1, 6.4;

Essential knowledge 4.A.1]

Learning objective 4.4 The student is able to make a prediction about the interactions of subcellular

organelles. [See SP 6.4; Essential knowledge 4.A.2]

Learning objective 4.5 The student is able to construct explanations based on scientific evidence

as to how interactions of subcellular structures provide essential functions. [See SP 6.2; Essential

knowledge 4.A.2]

Learning objective 4.6 The student is able to use representations and models to analyze situations

qualitatively to describe how interactions of subcellular structures, which possess specialized

functions, provide essential functions. [See SP 1.4; Essential knowledge 4.A.2]

Learning objective 4.7 The student is able to refine representations to illustrate how interactions

between external stimuli and gene expression result in specialization of cells, tissues and organs.

[See SP 1.3; Essential knowledge 4.A.3]

Learning objective 4.8 The student is able to evaluate scientific questions concerning organisms that

exhibit complex properties due to the interaction of their constituent parts. [See SP 3.3; Essential

knowledge 4.A.4]

Learning objective 4.9 The student is able to predict the effects of a change in a component(s) of a

biological system on the functionality of an organism(s). [See SP 6.4; Essential knowledge 4.A.4]

Learning objective 4.10 The student is able to refine representations and models to illustrate

biocomplexity due to interactions of the constituent parts.[See SP 1.3; Essential knowledge 4.A.4]

Learning objective 4.11 The student is able to justify the selection of the kind of data needed to

answer scientific questions about the interaction of populations within communities. [See SP 1.4, 4.1;

Essential knowledge 4.A.5]

Learning objective 4.12 The student is able to apply mathematical routines to quantities that describe

communities composed of populations of organisms that interact in complex ways. [See SP 2.2;

Essential knowledge 4.A.5]

Learning objective 4.13 The student is able to predict the effects of a change in the communityís

populations on the community. [See SP 6.4; Essential knowledge 4.A.5]

Learning objective 4.14 The student is able to apply mathematical routines to quantities that describe

interactions among living systems and their environment, which result in the movement of matter

and energy. [See SP 2.2; Essential knowledge 4.A.6]

Learning objective 4.15 The student is able to use visual representations to analyze situations or solve

problems qualitatively to illustrate how interactions among living systems and with their environment

result in the movement of matter and energy. [See SP 1.4; Essential knowledge 4.A.6]

Learning objective 4.16 The student is able to predict the effects of a change of matter or energy

availability on communities.[See SP 6.4; Essential knowledge 4.A.6]

Learning objective 4.17 The student is able to analyze data to identify how molecular interactions

affect structure and function. [See SP 5.1; Essential knowledge 4.B.1]

Learning objective 4.18 The student is able to use representations and models to analyze how

cooperative interactions within organisms promote efficiency in the use of energy and matter. [See

SP 1.4; Essential knowledge 4.B.2]

Learning objective 4.19 The student is able to use data analysis to refine observations and

measurements regarding the effect of population interactions on patterns of species distribution and

abundance. [See SP 5.2; Essential knowledge 4.B.3]

Learning objective 4.20 The student is able to explain how the distribution of ecosystems changes

over time by identifying large-scale events that have resulted in these changes in the past. [See SP

6.3; Essential knowledge 4.B.3]

Learning objective 4.21 The student is able to predict consequences of human actions on both local

and global ecosystems. [See SP 6.4; Essential knowledge 4.B.3]

Learning objective 4.22 The student is able to construct explanations based on evidence of how

variation in molecular units provides cells with a wider range of functions. [See SP 6.2; Essential

knowledge 4.C.1]

Learning objective 4.23 The student is able to construct explanations of the influence of environmental

factors on the phenotype of an organism. [See SP 6.2; Essential knowledge 4.C.2]

Learning objective 4.24 The student is able to predict the effects of a change in an environmental

factor on the genotypic expression of the phenotype. [See SP 6.4; Essential knowledge 4.C.2]

Learning objective 4.25 The student is able to use evidence to justify a claim that a variety of

phenotypic responses to a single environmental factor can result from different genotypes within the

population. [See SP 6.1; Essential knowledge 4.C.3]

Learning objective 4.26 The student is able to use theories and models to make scientific claims and/

or predictions about the effects of variation within populations on survival and fitness. [See SP 6.4;

Essential knowledge 4.C.3]

Learning objective 4.27 The student is able to make scientific claims and predictions about how

species diversity within an ecosystem influences ecosystem stability. [See SP 6.4; Essential

knowledge 4.C.4]

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